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Running MultiQC

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Generating MultiQC reports from your data

Running MultiQC

Once installed, just go to your analysis directory and run multiqc, followed by a list of directories to search. At it’s simplest, this can just be . (the current working directory):

multiqc .

That’s it! MultiQC will scan the specified directories and produce a report based on details found in any log files that it recognises.

See Using MultiQC Reports for more information about how to use the generated report.

For a description of all command line parameters, run multiqc --help.


Every command-line flag mentioned on this page has a corresponding configuration variable that can be set in a MultiQC config YAML file. This may be preferable if using a lot of options, or running in a pipeline.

Choosing where to scan

You can supply MultiQC with as many directories or files as you like. Above, we supply . - just the current directory, but all of these would work too:

multiqc data/
multiqc data/ ../proj_one/analysis/ /tmp/results
multiqc data/*
multiqc data/sample_1*

If the --ignore-symlinks flag is set, MultiQC will ignore symlinked directories and files.

Ignoring files

You can also ignore files or directories using the -x/--ignore option. This can be specified multiple times and accepts glob patterns (eg. using the * and ? wildcards).


Glob patterns should be enclosed in quotes to prevent them being expanded by bash.

The argument can match filenames, directory names and entire paths. For example:

multiqc . --ignore "file"
multiqc . --ignore "fileA" --ignore "fileB"
multiqc . --ignore "_R?.zip"
multiqc . --ignore "run_two/*"
multiqc . --ignore "*/run_three/*/fastqc/*"

Some modules get sample names from the contents of the file and not the filename (for example, stdout logs can contain multiple samples). In this case, you can skip samples by name instead:

multiqc . --ignore-samples "sample_3*"

These strings are matched using glob logic (* and ? are wildcards).

All of these settings can be saved in a MultiQC config file so that you don’t have to type them on the command line for every run.

File of search paths

If you have a large list of specific files, you can supply a file containing a list of file paths, one per row. MultiQC will only search the listed files.

multiqc --file-list my_file_list.txt

Renaming reports

The report is called multiqc_report.html by default. Tab-delimited data files are created in multiqc_data/, containing additional information. You can use a custom name for the report with the -n/--filename parameter, or instruct MultiQC to create them in a subdirectory using the -o/--outdir parameter.

Note that different MultiQC templates may have different defaults.

Overwriting existing reports

It’s quite common to repeatedly create new reports as new analysis results are generated. Instead of manually deleting old reports, you can just specify the -f/--force parameter and MultiQC will overwrite any conflicting report filenames.

Choosing which modules to run

Sometimes, it’s desirable to choose which MultiQC modules run. This could be because you’re only interested in one type of output and want to keep the reports small. Or perhaps the output from one module is misleading in your situation.

You can do this by using -m/--modules to explicitly define which modules you want to run. Alternatively, use -e/--exclude to run all modules except those listed.

If an explicitly requested module couldn’t find any expected input files, MultiQC will just continue with other modules. You can change this behaviour and make MultiQC strict about missing input by setting the --require-log flag. If set, MultiQC will exit with an error and exit code 1 if any of the modules specified with -m did not produce a section in the report.

Directory prefixes in sample names

Sometimes, the same samples may be processed in different ways. If MultiQC finds log files with the same sample name, the previous data will be overwritten (this can be inspected by running MultiQC with -v/--verbose).

To avoid this, run MultiQC with the -d/--dirs parameter. This will prefix every sample name with the directory path for that log file. As such, sample names should now be unique, and not overwrite one-another.

By default, --dirs will prepend the entire path to each sample name. You can choose which directories are added with the -dd/--dirs-depth parameter. Set to a positive integer to use that many directories at the end of the path. A negative integer takes directories from the start of the path.

For example, show the full relative file path in the sample name:

$ multiqc -d .
# analysis_1 | results | type | sample_1 | file.log
# analysis_2 | results | type | sample_2 | file.log
# analysis_3 | results | type | sample_3 | file.log

Prepend just the last directory name:

$ multiqc -d -dd 1 .
# sample_1 | file.log
# sample_2 | file.log
# sample_3 | file.log

Prepend the first directory name:

$ multiqc -d -dd -1 .
# analysis_1 | file.log
# analysis_2 | file.log
# analysis_3 | file.log

Printing to stdout

If you would like to generate MultiQC reports on the fly, you can print the output to standard out by specifying -n stdout. The data directory will not be generated and the template used must create stand-alone HTML reports.

Using different templates

MultiQC is built around a templating system. You can produce reports with different styling by using the -t/--template option. The available templates are listed with multiqc --help.

If you’re interested in creating your own custom template, see the writing new templates section.

Parsed data directory

By default, MultiQC creates a directory alongside the report containing tab-delimited files with the parsed data. This is useful for downstream processing, especially if you’re running MultiQC with very large numbers of samples.

Typically, these files are tab-delimited tables. However, you can get JSON or YAML output for easier downstream parsing by specifying -k/--data-format on the command line or data_format in your configuration file.

You can also choose whether to produce the data by specifying either the --data-dir or --no-data-dir command line flags or the make_data_dir variable in your configuration file. Note that the data directory is never produced when printing the MultiQC report to stdout.

To zip the data directory, use the -z/--zip-data-dir flag.

Exporting Plots

In addition to the HTML report, it’s also possible to get MultiQC to save plots as stand alone files. You can do this with the -p/--export command line flag. By default, plots will be saved in a directory called multiqc_plots as .png, .svg and .pdf files. Raw data for the plots are also saved to files.

You can instruct MultiQC to always do this by setting the export_plots config option to true, though note that this will add a few seconds on to execution time. The plots_dir_name changes the default directory name for plots and the export_plot_formats specifies what file formats should be created (must be supported by MatPlotLib).

Note that not all plot types are yet supported, so you may find some plots are missing.


You can always save static image versions of plots from within MultiQC reports, using the Export toolbox in the side bar.

PDF Reports

Whilst HTML is definitely the format of choice for MultiQC reports due to the interactive features that it can offer, PDF files are an integral part of some people’s workflows. To try to accommodate this, MultiQC has a --pdf command line flag which will try to create a PDF report for you.


PDF export support for MultiQC can be difficult to use and disables many core MultiQC features and even some plots. It should only be used as a last resort.

To generate PDFs, MultiQC uses the simple template. This uses flat plots, has no navigation or toolbar and strips out all JavaScript. The resulting HTML report is pretty basic, but this simplicity is helpful when generating PDFs.

Once the report is generated MultiQC attempts to call Pandoc, a command line tool able to convert documents between different file formats. You must have Pandoc already installed for this to work. If you don’t have Pandoc installed, you will get an error message that looks like this:

Error creating PDF - pandoc not found. Is it installed?

Please note that Pandoc is a complex tool and has a number of its own dependencies for PDF generation. Notably, it uses LaTeX / XeLaTeX which you must also have installed. Please make sure that you have the latest version of Pandoc and that it can successfully convert basic HTML files to PDF before reporting and errors.

Error messages from Pandoc are piped through to the MultiQC log, for example if the xelatex dependency is not installed you will see the following:

xelatex not found. Please select a different --pdf-engine or install xelatex

Note that not all plots have flat image equivalents, so some will be missing (at time of writing: FastQC sequence content plot, beeswarm dot plots, heatmaps).